In England, the legal conditions of a guarantee are first prescribed by the fraud regulation, which provides, in Section 4, “that no action be taken to compensate the defendant for a particular undertaking of guilt, delay or miscarriage of another person, unless the agreement on which such an action is brought or a brief or mention is signed, in writing and by the party charged to him, or by any other person legally authorized by him.” This means that the guarantee is not invalid, but can only be implemented by a chosen person. The written signature condition was specified in Elpis Maritimes Co v Marti Chartering Co Inc (1992) 1 AC 21 and J Pereia Fernandes SA/Mehta  EWHC 813 (Ch). In the latter case, it was found that a contract is enforceable either by a written agreement signed by the guarantor or his representative or by his representative, if the guarantee was oral, a separate note or memorandum of understanding could make the guarantee enforceable in the same way. In the first case, the court found that it was sufficient for it to be written or printed by the guarantor, that an initial in an e-mail was sufficient, but that a default header in an e-mail was not sufficient. The Tribunal found that the minor remedy was sufficient for the status to be initiated, as it had long been considered that a single fingerprint or “X” was sufficient. The Electronic Communications Act 2000 created the power to put in place legislative instruments to amend legislation to comply with the modern use of electronic communications. This runs counter to Article 9 of the European E-Commerce Directive 2000, which explicitly provides for exemptions from the “written” guarantee requirement. It was even found that a click on a personal data confirmation button sufficiently met the requirement for the status of the fraud.  A guarantee agreement is often used for loans for tuition fees guaranteed by the government. In this case, if the student defaults on the loan, the bank will call on the government to recover the outstanding credit debts. Under various existing civil codes, a guarantee if the underlying obligation is “not valid” is null and void, unless the nullity is the result of the principal debtor`s personal disability However, in some countries, the mere personal incapacity of a minor is sufficient: in order to remove the guarantee of a loan granted to him The guarantees of Egyptian sanctions that were expressly concluded “given the lack of legal capacity” to conclude a valid main obligation The Portuguese code retains responsibility for guaranteeing an invalid principal obligation until it is legally lifted These are common examples when a parent can guarantee a mortgage to allow a child to buy a house or secure a credit for a car purchase.